The Sundarbans is a mangrove area in the delta formed by the confluence of Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna Rivers in the Bay of Bengal. It spans from the Hooghly River in India's state of West Bengal to the Baleswar River in Bangladesh. It comprises closed and open mangrove forests, agriculturally used land, mudflats and barren land, and is intersected by multiple tidal streams and channels. The Sundarbans mangrove forest covers an area of about 10,000 km² (4,000 square miles). In West Bengal, they extend over 4,260 km² (1,645 square miles) across the South 24 Parganas and North 24 Parganas districts. Forests in Bangladesh's Khulna Division extend over 6,017 km² (2,323 square miles). The most abundant tree species are Sundri Mangrove (Heritiera fomes) and Milky Mangrove (Excoecaria agallocha). The forests provide habitat to 453 faunal wildlife, including 290 bird, 120 fish, 42 mammal, 35 reptile and eight amphibian species. The The Sundarbans is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Lawachara National Park is a major national park and nature reserve in Bangladesh. The park is located at Kamalganj Upazila, Maulvi Bazar District in the northeastern region of the country. It is located within the 2,740 ha (6,770 acres) West Bhanugach Reserved Forest.
Lawachara National Park covers approximately 1,250 ha (3,090 acres) of semi-evergreen forests Biome and mixed deciduous forests Biome. The land was declared a national park by the Bangladesh government on 7 July 1996 under the Wildlife Act of 1974.
The main attraction in the Lawachara National Park are the Hoolock Gibbons. Only less than 100 are still living in the park.
In the Sundarbans, the Saltwater Crocodile is endangered.
The Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), also known as the estuarine crocodile, Indo-Pacific crocodile, marine crocodile, sea crocodile or informally as saltie, is the largest of all living reptiles, as well as the largest riparian predator in the world. Males of this species can reach sizes up to 7 m (23 ft) in length. However, an adult male saltwater crocodile rarely reaches or exceeds a size of 6 m (20 ft) weighing 1,000-1,200 kg (2,200-2,650 lb). Females are much smaller and often do not surpass 3 m (10 ft).
Pictures of birds in Bangladesh and other nature pages are separate:
Morning mist in the Sundarbans just before sunrise. (426k) Sunrise in the Sundarbans. (530k) Morning mist in the Sundarbans. (409k) Channel in the Sundarbans in morning mist. (872k) Bay of Bengal. (443k) Sunset over rice paddies. (496k) Sunset. (508k) Suset over the tea plantation. (460k) Evening in the Ganges Delta. (526k) Kaptai Lake, a large reservoir. (748k) Kaptai Lake, a large reservoir. (943k) Sunset over Kaptai Lake. (570k) The moon over Kaptai Lake. (281k) The Moon. (485k) Reflections. (487k) Evening on the river. (573k) Cox's Bazar Beach is the longest natural sea beach in the world running 120 km (75 miles). (631k) Tetrapods on Cox's Bazar to prevent beach erosion. (676k) Cox's Bazar Beach. (707k)
Like other gibbons, Hoolock Gibbon pairs produce a loud, elaborate song, usually sung as a duet from the forest canopy, in which younger individuals of the family group may join in. The song includes an introductory sequence, an organising sequence, and a great call sequence, with the male also contributing to the latter (unlike in some other gibbon species).
In India and Bangladesh it is found where there is contiguous canopy, broad-leaved, wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests dipterocarpus forest often mountainous. The species is an important seed disperser; its diet includes mostly ripe fruits, with some flowers, leaves and shoots.
There are numerous threats to Western Hoolock Gibbons in the wild, and are now entirely dependent on human action for their survival. Threats include habitat encroachment by humans, forest clearance for tea cultivation, the practice of jhuming (slash-and-burn cultivation), hunting for food and “medicine”, capture for trade, and forest degradation.
Over the last 30–40 years, Western Hoolock Gibbon numbers are estimated to have dropped from more than 100,000 (Assam alone was estimated to have around 80,000 in the early 1970s) to less than 5,000 individuals (a decline of more than 90%). In 2009 it was considered to be one of the 25 most endangered primates, though it has been dropped from the later editions of the list.