A lot of the information on this page is from The Ancient Egypt Site (AES below), the site Ancient Egypt (AE below), and from Wikipedia. These sites have a lot of information and consistent time lines, although they differ. The hieroglyphic names are from both the AES and AE website. The times are all from the AE website.

From the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt entry in Wikipedia:

The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom. The concept of a "Second Intermediate Period" was coined in 1942 by German Egyptologist Hanns Stock.

It is best known as the period when the Hyksos people of West Asia made their appearance in Egypt and whose reign comprised the 15th Dynasty founded by Salitis.

End of the Middle Kingdom

The 12th Dynasty of Egypt came to an end at the end of the 19th century BCE with the death of Queen Sobekneferu (1782–1778 BCE). Apparently she had no heirs, causing the 12th Dynasty to come to a sudden end, and, with it, the Golden Age of the Middle Kingdom; it was succeeded by the much weaker 13th Dynasty. Retaining the seat of the 12th Dynasty, the 13th Dynasty ruled from Itjtawy ("Seizer-of-the-Two-Lands") for most of its existence, switching to Thebes in the far south possibly since the reign of Merneferre Ay.

The 13th Dynasty is notable for the accession of the first formally recognised Semitic-speaking king, Khendjer ("Boar"). The 13th Dynasty proved unable to hold on to the entire territory of Egypt however, and a provincial ruling family of Western Asian descent in Avaris, located in the marshes of the eastern Nile Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the 14th Dynasty.

15th Dynasty

The 15th Dynasty dates approximately from 1624 to 1514 BCE.

The 15th Dynasty of Egypt was the first Hyksos dynasty. It ruled from Avaris but did not control the entire land. The Hyksos preferred to stay in northern Egypt since they infiltrated from the northeast. The names and order of their kings is uncertain. The Turin King list indicates that there were six Hyksos kings, with an obscure Khamudi listed as the final king of the 15th Dynasty.

Some scholars argue there were two Apophis kings named Apepi I and Apepi II, but this is primarily due to the fact there are two known prenomens for this king: Awoserre and Aqenenre. However, the Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt maintains in his study of the Second Intermediate Period that these prenomens all refer to one man, Apepi, who ruled Egypt for 40 or more years. This is also supported by the fact that this king employed a third prenomen during his reign: Nebkhepeshre. Apepi likely employed several different prenomens throughout various periods of his reign. This scenario is not unprecedented, as later kings, including the famous Ramesses II and Seti II, are known to have used two different prenomens in their own reigns.

16th Dynasty

The 16th Dynasty ruled the Theban region in Upper Egypt for 70 years.

The continuing war against the 15th Dynasty dominated the short-lived 16th Dynasty. The armies of the 15th Dynasty, winning town after town from their southern enemies, continually encroached on the 16th Dynasty territory, eventually threatening and then conquering Thebes itself. In his study of the second intermediate period, the egyptologist Kim Ryholt has suggested that Dedumose I sued for a truce in the latter years of the dynasty, but one of his predecessors, Nebiryraw I, may have been more successful and seems to have enjoyed a period of peace in his reign.

Famine, which had plagued Upper Egypt during the late 13th Dynasty and the 14th Dynasty, also blighted the 16th Dynasty, most evidently during and after the reign of Neferhotep III.

Thebes was the capital of many of the 16th Dynasty pharaohs. From Ryholt's reconstruction of the Turin canon, 15 kings of the dynasty can now be named, five of whom appear in contemporary sources. While they were most likely rulers based in Thebes itself, some may have been local rulers from other important Upper Egyptian towns, including Abydos, El Kab and Edfu. By the reign of Nebiriau I, the realm controlled by the 16th Dynasty extended at least as far north as Hu and south to Edfu. Not listed in the Turin canon (after Ryholt) is Wepwawetemsaf, who left a stele at Abydos and was likely a local kinglet of the Abydos Dynasty.

Abydos Dynasty

The Abydos Dynasty may have been a short-lived local dynasty ruling over part of Upper Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period in Ancient Egypt and was contemporary with the 15th and 16th Dynasties, approximately from 1650 to 1600 BCE. The existence of an Abydos Dynasty was first proposed by Detlef Franke and later elaborated on by Egyptologist Kim Ryholt in 1997. The existence of the dynasty may have been vindicated in January 2014, when the tomb of the previously unknown pharaoh Seneb Kay was discovered in Abydos. The dynasty tentatively includes four rulers: Wepwawetemsaf, Pantjeny, Snaaib, and Seneb Kay.

The royal necropolis of the Abydos Dynasty was found in the southern part of Abydos, in an area called Anubis Mountain in ancient times. The rulers of the Abydos Dynasty placed their burial ground adjacent to the tombs of the Middle Kingdom rulers.

17th Dynasty

Around the time Memphis and Itj-tawy fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared its independence from Itj-tawy, becoming the 17th Dynasty. This dynasty would eventually lead the war of liberation that drove the Hyksos back into Asia. The Theban-based 17th Dynasty restored numerous temples throughout Upper Egypt while maintaining peaceful trading relations with the Hyksos kingdom in the north. Indeed, Senakhtenre Ahmose, the first king in the line of Ahmoside kings, even imported white limestone from the Hyksos-controlled region of Tura to make a granary door at the Temple of Karnak. However, his successors — the final two kings of this dynasty — Seqenenre Tao and Kamose are traditionally credited with defeating the Hyksos in the course of the wars of liberation. With the creation of the 18th Dynasty around 1550 BCE the New Kingdom period of Egyptian history begins with Ahmose I, its first pharaoh, completing the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt and placing the country, once again, under centralised administrative control.

Following is the list of Pharaohs of the 2nd Intermediate Period as well as I could determine it:

All pictures are © Dr. Günther Eichhorn, unless otherwise noted.

Name of Pharaoh Dates Birth Name Coronation Name Horus Name Comment


(from The Ancient Egypt Site and Ancient Egypt)

Second Intermediate Period (AES Wiki )

1685 - 1534 BCE

13th Dynasty (cont'd) (AES Wiki AE)

1776 - 1625 BCE

Merhotepre Sobekhotep V (Wiki)1685 - 1680 BCEMerhotepre Sobekhotep VMerhotepre Sobekhotep V
Merhotepre Sobekhotep V
Merhotepre Sobekhotep V
n/a
Wahibre Ibiau (Wiki)1680 - 1669 BCEWahibre IbiauWahibre Ibiau
Wahibre Ibiau
Wahibre Ibiau
n/a
Merneferre Ay (Wiki)1669 - 1656 BCEMerneferre AyMerneferre Ay
Merneferre Ay
n/a
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI (Wiki)1656 - 1654 BCEKhahotepre Sobekhotep VIKhahotepre Sobekhotep VI
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI
n/a
Ini I (Wiki)Ini IIni In/a
Sankhenra Sewadjtu (Wiki)1654 - 1651 BCEn/aSankhenra Sewadjtun/a
Mersekhemre Ined (Wiki)Mersekhemre InedMersekhemre Inedn/a
Neferhotep II1650 - 1647 BCENeferhotep IINeferhotep IIn/a
Sewadjkare Hori (Hor II) (Wiki)1646 BCESewadjkare HoriSewadjkare Horin/a
Merkawre Sobekhotep VII (Wiki)1644 - 1642 BCEMerkawre Sobekhotep VIIMerkawre Sobekhotep VII
Merkawre Sobekhotep VII
Merkawre Sobekhotep VII
n/a
Dedumes1641 - 1638 BCEDedumes
Dedumes
Dedumes
Dedumes
Dedumes
Ibi IIIIbi IIIIbi IIIn/a
Hor IIIHor IIIHor IIIn/a
Sedjefakaren/aSedjefakaren/a
Sewahenre Senebmiu (Wiki)Sewahenre SenebmiuSewahenre Senebmiun/a
Sekhanenren/aSekhanenren/a
Merkheperre (Wiki)MerkheperreMerkheperren/a
Merkare (Wiki)n/aMerkaren/a
Sesostris IVSesostris IVSesostris IVn/a
MontuemsafMontuemsafMontuemsafn/a
Neferhotep IIINeferhotep IIINeferhotep III
Neferhotep III
n/a
Sewadjare Mentuhotep V (Wiki)Sewadjare Mentuhotep VSewadjare Mentuhotep Vn/a
Nerkaren/aNerkaren/a
Wesermontun/aWesermontun/a
Sobekhotep VIIISobekhotep VIIISobekhotep VIIIn/a
Mershepsesre Ini II (Wiki)Mershepsesre Ini IIMershepsesre Ini IIn/a
Montuhotep VIMontuhotep VIMontuhotep VIn/a
SenaibSenaibSenaibn/a
Sobekhotep IXSobekhotep IXSobekhotep IXn/a
WepwawetemsafWepwawetemsafWepwawetemsafn/a
Sebekain/aSebekain/a
Khuiikern/aKhuiikern/a
Seheqenre Sankhptahi (Wiki)Seheqenre SankhptahiSeheqenre Sankhptahin/a
Sakaren/aSakaren/a

14th Dynasty (Xois) (AES Wiki AE)

1710 - 1590 BCE

Nehesi Aasehre (Wiki)1705 BCENehesi Aasehre
Nehesi Aasehre
Nehesi Aasehren/a
Khatire1705 BCEn/aKhatiren/a
Nebfaure1704 BCEn/aNebfauren/a
Sehebre (Wiki)n/aSehebren/a
Merdjefare (Wiki)n/aMerdjefaren/a
Sewadjkare III (Wiki)n/aSewadjkare IIIn/a
Nebdjefauren/aNebdjefauren/a
Webenren/aWebenren/a
///djefaren/a///djefaren/a
///webenren/a///webenren/a
Awibre IIn/aAwibre IIn/a
Heribren/aHeribren/a
Nebsenren/aNebsenren/a
Sekheperenre (Wiki)n/aSekheperenren/a
Djedkheruren/aDjedkheruren/a
Seankhibren/aSeankhibren/a
Kanefertemren/aKanefertemren/a
Sekhem///ren/aSekhem///ren/a
Kakemren/aKakemren/a
Neferibren/aNeferibren/a
Ankhkaren/aAnkhkaren/a
Semenenren/aSemenenren/a
Anati Djedkaren/aAnati Djedkaren/a
Senefer///ren/aSenefer///ren/a
Menibren/aMenibren/a
Djed///ren/aDjed///ren/a
Inenek///n/aInenek///n/a
Ineb///n/aIneb///n/a
Ip///n/aIp///n/a
Hebin/aHebin/a
San/aSan/a
Hepun/aHepun/a
Shemsun/aShemsu
Shemsu
n/a
Meni///n/aMeni///n/a
Werkain/aWerkain/a
Hepu IIHepu IIHepu IIn/a
///nenati///nenati///nenatin/a
Bebnemn/aBebnemBebnem
Iuf///n/aIuf///n/a
Seth IIn/aSeth IIn/a
Sinun/aSinun/a
Hor IVn/aHor IVn/a
Nibefn/aNibefn/a
Penestenseptin/aPenestenseptin/a
Kherhemwetshepsutn/aKherhemwetshepsutn/a
Khuihemwetn/aKhuihemwetn/a

15th Dynasty (Hyksos) (AES Wiki AE)

1624 - 1514 BCE

Sharek (Salidis) (Wiki)1624 - 1604 BCESharekSharekn/a
Maaibre Sheshi (Wiki)1604 - 1594 BCEMaaibre SheshiMaaibre Sheshin/a
Yaqub-Har (Yakobner) (Wiki)1594 - 1586 BCEYaqub-Har
Yaqub-Har
Yaqub-Har
Yaqub-Har
Yaqub-Har
n/a
Khiyan (Wiki)1586 - 1566 BCEKhiyan
Khiyan
Khiyan
Khiyan
Khiyan
Ipepi (Apophis) (Wiki)1566 - 1526 BCEIpepi
Ipepi
Ipepi
Ipepi
Ipepi
Ipepi
Ipepi
Ipepi
Ipepi
Ipepi
Ipepi
Khamudi (Wiki)1526 - 1514 BCEKhamudi
Khamudi
Khamudi
Khamudi
n/a

16th Dynasty (Hyksos) (AES Wiki AE)

1620 - 1540 BCE

Djehuti (Wiki)DjehutiDjehutin/a
Nibirau I (Wiki)1627 - 1601 BCENibirau I
Nibirau I
Nibirau In/a
Nibirau II (Wiki)1601 BCENibirau IIn/an/a
Anat-Har (Wiki)Anat-Harn/an/a
Semqen (Wiki)Semqenn/an/a
Sakir-Har (Wiki)Sakir-Harn/an/a
Jamu (Yaam) (Wiki)JamuJamun/a
Jakebmu (Wiki)JakebmuJakebmun/a
Amu (Wiki)AmuAmun/a
Pepi III (Wiki)Pepi IIIPepi IIIn/a
Hepun/an/an/a
Nikaren/an/an/a
AnatiAnati
Anati
n/an/a
Bebnum (Wiki)n/an/an/a
Montuhotep VI (Wiki)n/an/aMontuhotep VI
Montuhotep VI
Nebmaatre (Wiki)Nebmaatren/an/a
Aahotepre (Wiki)AahotepreAahotepren/a
AaneterireAaneteriren/an/a
MeribreMeribren/an/a
NubankhreNubankhren/an/a
Nikare (II) (Wiki)Nikaren/an/a
Sharek (Wiki)n/an/an/a
Wasa (Wadj[ed]) (Wiki)Wasan/an/a
Qar (Wiki)Qarn/an/a
Shenes (Wiki)n/an/an/a
BebankhBebankhn/an/a
Nubuserren/an/an/a
Khauserren/an/an/a
Khamuren/an/an/a
Inekn/an/an/a
Apepin/an/an/a
Hiben/an/an/a
Apedn/an/an/a
Hapin/an/an/a
Shemsun/an/an/a
Meni///n/an/an/a
Werqan/an/an/a

17th Dynasty (Theban) (AES Wiki AE)

1580 - 1534 BCE

Rahotep (AES Wiki)1571 - 1567 BCERahotep
Rahotep
Rahotep
Rahotep
n/a
Sobekemzaf I (AES Wiki)1567 - 1564 BCESobekemzaf I
Sobekemzaf I
Sobekemzaf In/a
Intef (Antef) V (AES)1564 - 1562 BCEIntef
Intef
Intef
Intef
n/a
Intef (Antef) VI (AES Wiki)1562 - 1557 BCEIntefIntefn/a
Intef (Antef) VII (AES Wiki)1559 BCEIntefIntefn/a
Sobekemzaf II (AES Wiki)1557 - 1550 BCESobekemzaf IISobekemzaf IIn/a
Senakhtenre Ahmose (AES Wiki)1550 - 1549 BCESenakhtenre AhmoseSenakhtenre Ahmosen/a
Seqenenre Tao (AES Wiki)1549 - 1545 BCESeqenenre TaoSeqenenre Taon/a
Kamose (AES Wiki)1545 - 1540 BCEKamoseKamosen/a
SuserenreSuserenren/an/a
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Page last updated on Fri May 28 17:28:43 2021 (Mountain Standard Time)


Egypt - Pharaohs of the Second Intermediate Period - 1624 - 1534 BCE on www.guenther-eichhorn.com


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